The Ultimate Evening Cleansing Routine for Flawless, GLASSY Skin

The Ultimate Evening Cleansing Routine for Flawless, GLASSY Skin

If you are in pursuit of perfect skin, it’s time to show some love to your complexion with an evening cleansing routine that’s packed with all the right ingredients. After a long day at work or being super mom, your skin deserves a break, and giving it the attention it deserves will aid in achieving a glowing complexion! If you want to unlock the secret to radiant flawless skin – here’s the ultimate evening skin cleansing routine that will leave your face flawlessly smooth, plump, and healthy-looking. Light a candle, put on your comfy pajama set, and pull up to your vanity. Let’s dive in!


The Triple Cleanse

Removing makeup and grime accumulated on your face in the course of the day is an essential part of your night skincare routine. Even if you don’t wear a stitch of makeup during the day, the oxidative stress and environmental toxins that find their way to your skin truly do need to be removed. I often suggest wearing healthy makeup on your skin during the day (after a perfect morning skincare routine), simply to ensure your skin is protected from the elements. Start with the Molecular Water on a cotton round to loosen eye makeup and remove any lip sticks or stains.


The Molecular Water is full of coffee extract – which has a high concentration of revitalizing caffeine and essential fatty acids, plus moisturizing vitamin E. Noni fruit is also in this mega product – which grows abundantly throughout the Hawaiian islands. It contains over 165 beneficial compounds and is incredibly rich in polyphenol antioxidants. Mangosteen, another gem in the Molecular Water, is replete with nutrients, including vitamins C, B6, and B12, as well as calcium, potassium, zinc, and manganese. Found only in Amazonian rainforests, Acai berries contain high levels of anthocyanins, which are extremely effective antioxidants. It also includes high levels of vitamins A, C, and E. The Molecular Water is a staple in any evening routine!


Next, massage the Peptide Cleanser into the skin with damp finger tips. This cleanser is an exceptional hydrating and tightening cleanser, containing Glycerin, Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7, Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1, Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract, and Calendula Officinalis (Marigold) Flower Extract. Skin tightening peptides paired with the power of glycerin for cellular softening are a massive game-changer in the cleansing routine! This is a popular cleanser that you will never want to get rid of. Rinse your skin and pat dry with a clean hand towel, and finally – move onto the amazing Illuminizing Cleanser.


Massage the decadent and ever-popular Illuminizing Cleanser into the skin for the final cleanse – and the amazing infusion of bergamot oil into your deserving skin cells!  Bergamot essential oil is a cold-pressed essential oil produced by cells inside the rind of a bergamot orange fruit. In addition, this oil is great for those with oily skin, as it helps to unclog pores. Bergamot has an added property of helping to balance oily skin. The Illuminizing Cleanser remains a staple product in our loyal customers’ skincare routines – as one of the original founding cleansers. It is rated five stars for a reason, providing exceptional benefits during the cleansing step and providing a fresh scent during the process. Behold – the instant glow!


Once you rinse the final cleanse step from your glossy, glowing face and neck, pat dry and move forward into your serum and moisturizer steps. Hint: We are loving the Courtney Sykes DROPS for instant hydration and skin tightening/anti-aging benefits, PLUS the ever-loved Peptide Molecular Cream to finish it off.


Voilà! The evening skincare routine gods have spoken – and your skin is completely rid of the toxins from the day and you are free to rest soundly knowing your skin has been cleansed with the best ingredients a cleansing routine can offer. Gorgeous, glass skin is yours!

HYPERPIGMENTATION: The Root Causes + Long-Term Cures

Estheticians in 2023 and beyond are the saviors in skincare that can truly make a difference in the lives of their clients through a deep understanding of how to treat hyperpigmentation – effectively! Hyperpigmentation and skin discoloration can plague many clients for various reasons and a thorough understanding of pigmentation disorders and causes is paramount for long-term success in the treatment room. By understanding various causes of hyperpigmentation and skin discoloration, along with a deep knowledge of ingredients that both lighten and brighten the skin (and their sequential level of importance in the Client Care Plan), Estheticians are able to effectively treat these conditions and provide their guests with the visible results they deserve.

Hyperpigmentation is a common skin condition characterized by dark patches or “spots” on the skin. This can look like freckles or lentigos, but also like larger, irregular patches of discoloration on various areas of the body. There are numerous underlying causes of skin discoloration, both intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (environmental). The underlying causes can require different levels of required treatment plans, due to the pigmentation either being hormonal or sun-specific.

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is one of the most common causes of hyperpigmentation, along with being an extrinsic factor of aging. UV radiation triggers an increase in melanin production, resulting in darkening of the skin. While some amount of exposure to sunlight is necessary for healthy skin and vitamin D production, too much sun exposure can have detrimental and long-term cellular aging effects. For this reason, it’s important for clients to apply sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher on a daily basis. The consistent advocacy for sun protection from your practice as an Esthetician is key to engraving this understanding into the minds of your clients. Consider events catered around sun protection, workshops that incorporate skincare products and sun protection into a daily makeup routine, and any other fun and unique ways to encourage mineral sunscreen use from your client base. Additionally, wearing protective clothing such as wide-brimmed hats and sunglasses can help protect your clients’ skin from overexposure to UV rays.

Intrinsic factors of aging that cause hyperpigmentation have to do with a multitude of factors that would cause hormonal imbalances. By eating excessive amounts of sugar and dairy products, as one example, organelles at a cellular level are not fortified through proper nutrition. Cells need three things to survive and perform properly: food (nutrition from plants; fruits and vegetables), oxygen, and water. Sugar and dairy products that are not part of the proper nutrition needed for cells can cause oxidative stress (aging) and an increase in inflammation. Glucose is a sugar molecule that, when ingested in excessive amounts, causes a lining in the gut that is impenetrable to nutrients from fruits and vegetables. Lactose in dairy products can be broken down into galactose as well as glucose and cause the same reaction to occur. Therefore, clients ingesting more sugar and dairy than necessary cause ribosomes to not function properly. Ribosomes are one type of organelle inside of a cell that causes protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is extremely important for the production of healthy hormone levels in males and females.

Skin health, in its complexities, is tied to so many distinct and precise factors throughout the human body. Estheticians must understand the many avenues for which consultations must be based on, in order to assist their clients in the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Like never before, clients yearn for their service providers to have a thorough education and deep understanding of many underlying causes. So much of a proper client consultation is rooted in complex, yet simple, education that a client can listen to and understand. A thorough understanding of the endocrine system and hormone balance is essential in today’s thriving esthetics market.

The endocrine system is a series of ductless glands that secrete hormones that communicate with many parts of the body. The endocrine system is exceptionally interesting – as so much of these glands truly affect not only our skin health, but our energy levels and the possibility of “male pattern characteristics” in females. It is important to send clients to the correct physicians or medical providers that can assist these individuals with the regulation of hormone disorders to control hyperpigmentation, but also with an understanding that lifestyle and nutritional factors can provide very positive outcomes – given the individual and other health or genetic factors. The endocrine system is an information signal system, much like the nervous system – however, the endocrine system effects are slow to initiate and prolonged in their response. Additionally, when one endocrine gland is experiencing any unbalancing, there is a large possibility that another may follow suit. The connection of discussions between the endocrine glands is absolute – and Estheticians can assist their clients in understanding that hormonal health is a direct reflection of long-term anti-aging.

The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, secretes trophic hormones – which cause other glands to make hormones. The pituitary gland is the “command center”, so to speak, of the endocrine system. Several important trophic hormones are secreted from the pituitary gland and make their way to the ovaries in females, which are both extremely important for ovulation and childbirth. Follicle-stimulating hormone, also known as FSH, is secreted by the pituitary and essentially plants the “seeds” involved in ovulation during puberty and beyond. Luteinizing Hormone, also known as LH, is another very important trophic hormone that is needed to actually release the egg from the ovum in order to have children. Because the pituitary gland also secretes MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) from its intermediate lobe, it is important for Estheticians to understand the connection with the possible loss or disconnection of any trophic hormones that actually need to occur in females. If any trophic hormones released by the pituitary are not functioning properly, or sometimes not at all due to genetic predispositions or health issues, the skin can be a target to over stimulation of melanocytes, or hyperpigmentation.

The understanding of the adrenal glands is fascinating to the Esthetician for many reasons. The adrenal glands look like little “hats” that sit on top of the kidneys, and are made up of a medulla and a cortex. The adrenal cortex produces three types of steroid hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and adrogens. Mineralocorticoids help to regulate blood pressure and electrolyte balance. A type of glucocorticoid is the popular cortisol – which serves as our “stress” hormone. Understanding and regulating excessive stress is important for the regulation of the adrenal glands. The third steroid hormone, androgens, are the female’s only natural source of the male hormone, testosterone. This fact is important for many Estheticians, as high testosterone levels in females cause male pattern characteristics such as excessive hair growth on the chin and upper lip, hyperpigmentation, and cystic jawline acne. The regulation of adrenal gland levels are imperative for proper skin health – and can be a source of understanding for those treating acne or hormonal hyperpigmentation. The medulla of the adrenal glands produces adrenaline and noradrenaline, producing the “fight or flight” response in the body during intense situations.

Clients with Addison’s Disease are those in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones. Esthetic characteristics include darkening of the skin – especially in sites of friction, vermillion border of the lips, genital skin, and other areas. Muscle weakness, lightheadedness, sweating, changes in mood, and craving for salt due to low sodium are other symptoms. Because hyperpigmentation can be one of the most rewarding yet difficult skin conditions to treat, it is important for the Esthetician to take Addison’s Disease into account when treating skin darkening. Although difficult and time consuming, hyperpigmentation can be treated effectively through progressive chemical peels, laser treatments, and the use of ingredients such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, licorice root, arbutin, and ascorbic acid.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is characterized by hirsutism (excessive body and facial hair from hormonal fluctuations), acne, and hyperpigmentation. PCOS is rooted in the non-secretion or unbalanced secretions of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland, which are crucial for the ovaries to properly function in females. When the ovaries are unable to ovulate properly, ovarian cysts can occur. Due to and in conjunction with cysts, an unnatural occurrence of androgens (male hormones) appear in the ovaries for females. High androgen levels are the source of the male pattern characteristics, such as excessive hair, acne, and darkened skin. According to many sources, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome cannot be cured, but can be treated with lifestyle changes such as nutrition and exercise – along with anti-androgen medications and birth control pills. When realizing a client has PCOS, the game plan and consultation for services such as laser hair removal are changed – as the course of treatment would either change with the additional usage of medications, or halt all together. If the signs of PCOS are not treated, one would not be able to effectively clear the client completely with electrolysis or laser hair removal, due to the androgenic hair growth as a source.

Natural hormone replacement therapy is an alternative to medicinal supplementation, which can have adverse reactions or negative side effects. HRT is any form of therapy using naturally occurring hormones, such as progesterone and estrogen for females, to supplement areas in which the individual is low. In the ovaries, a very specific level of estrogen and progesterone is needed for women, in order to prevent common symptoms associated with menopause, for example. The treatment is also thought to prolong life and reduce incidence of dementia. Natural estrogen or progesterone therapy can often be compounded locally at a pharmacy specializing in that specification. A physician or medical advisor from the compounding pharmacy or clinic would place the client on the set amount needed. This, paired with other modalities and treatments, is a beneficial start to results-oriented treatment of hyperpigmentation.

Ingredients for hyperpigmentation include a firm understanding of the needs of the lipid barrier and function while treating skin discoloration. Lighteners and brighteners are key to suppression and reduction of hyperpigmentation, while nourisher ingredients such as squalane and ceramides are key to long-term skin plumping and hydration levels. Estheticians should keep their eye on some key ingredients for lightening and brightening such as:


    • The only VITAMIN to synthesize collagen proteins; Collagen PRODUCTION! (Fun Fact! Copper is the only MINERAL to synthesize collagen production!)

    • Antioxidant & Sunscreen BOOSTER! Use during the AM routine primarily.

    • Does NOT combine well with glycolic acid and retinol – as well as other ACIDS! Because it’s an antioxidant, it NEUTRALIZES other chemical reactions! BEST when used ALONE in the skincare routine.

    • If used at night, use by itself and not in the presence of other acids.


    • A skin lightening agent and tyrosinase inhibitor; Works by turning off “tyrosinase” – which is an enzyme turned on by HORMONE changes in the skin that produce splotchy hyperpigmentation through an increase in melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis; Carcinogenic in nature (toxic; cancer-causing if used in large doses over long periods of time)


    • Arbutin is a glycosylated hydroquinone extracted from the bearberry plant; inhibits tyrosinase and thus prevents the formation of melanin from a NATURAL, PLANT-BASED perspective; Highly purified biosynthetic active ingredient that reduces the look of hyperpigmentation and uneven skin tone.


    • An alpha hydroxy acid; Molecular weight of 142; chelation agent produced by several species of fungi; Produces brightening effects to the skin.


    • Speeds up cell turnover through cellular DESQUAMATION (skin shedding!); Works BEST when utilized with other AHA’s or BHA; Not to be used independently or for long periods of time. Retinol is a type of retinoid, which is made from vitamin A.


    • Acts as a brightening agent to reduce dark spots and improve hyperpigmentation; Inhibits the binding of plasminogen to keratinocytes, which in turn reduces the activity of melanocyte tyrosinase, resulting in a decrease in arachidonic acid and prostaglandins.


    • Helps lighten the appearance of blemishes and hyperpigmentation, smooth out fine lines and provide intense hydration to the skin.


Treatments for hyperpigmentation in the treatment room must involve easing the client into modalities such as microchanneling, medium-depth chemical peels, and potentially ablative and non ablative laser treatments. Microchanneling assists in aerating the skin, in order to break up hyperpigmentation at the basal layer of the epidermis, where it resides. Microchanneling in low percentages of ingredients such as kojic acid or tranexamic acid – along with squalane and hyaluronic acid are sure fire ways to begin breaking up the pigment in a safe, yet effective way. Medium-depth chemical peels are chemical peels with a pH of 2.0 and higher percentages of active ingredients. Medical-grade peels with a pH of 1.0 are useful to reduce hyperpigmentation as well, as long as the client is eased into these peels with more superficial chemical peels to begin with. Lasers are also extremely effective at treating hyperpigmentation, if performed properly by a trained technician that understands laser physics, fluence levels, wavelengths, and skin cooling requirements. Non-ablative lasers generally treat “reds and browns” – targeting vessels (reds) and hyperpigmentation or hair reduction (browns). Ablative lasers are very effective as well for targeting the dermis directly and producing new fibroblasts, which stimulate new cell growth and ultimately, reduce the appearance of skin discoloration. All of these treatments pair very well together, as seen below in a suggested Care Plan for the treatment room.


Treatment Room CARE PLAN for Hyperpigmentation

8 Treatment Protocol; 3 Week Intervals


Treatment 1: Microdermabrasion Facial + Superficial (Level 1) Chemical Peel

Treatment 2: Microchanneling: Hyperpigmentation Protocol (2 Passes Stem Cells, 1 Pass Hyaluronic Acid, 1 Pass 7.5% Kojic Acid)

Treatment 3: Facial + Medium-Depth (Level 2) Chemical Peel

Treatment 4: Dermaplaning Facial

Treatment 5: IPL Laser Facial for Pigmented Lesions

Treatment 6: Fractional Laser Facial (CO2 or Erbium Laser Resurfacing) + IPL Laser Facial for Pigmented Lesions

Treatment 7: Microchanneling: Hyperpigmentation Protocol (2 Passes Stem Cells, 1 Pass Hyaluronic Acid, 1 Pass 7.5% Kojic Acid)

Treatment 8: Hydradermabrasion Facial

Estheticians have the ability to additionally put together HOMECARE PLANS that “wow” their guests with their expert knowledge in skincare ingredients for effective, results-driven outcomes. There are multiple ways to pair together ingredients and put together a uniform Care Plan. The key is to understand that plans must and should change with the evolving needs of the client. By putting together an outline that can be changed or altered, it places the client in the mindset that “homework” is required when it comes to incredible outcomes with hyperpigmentation reduction. Below are some sample HOMECARE PLANS that are catered to various hyperpigmentation sources.


HOMECARE PLAN for Hyperpigmentation: Hormonal

AM Routine

Cleanser: Glycerin or Rosehip Seed Oil Cleanser

Toner: Glycolic Acid Toner

Serum: Squalane and Vitamin C Serums

Sunscreen: Mineral-Based (Physical) SPF 30 + with Titanium Dioxide or Zinc Oxide


PM Routine

Cleanser: Lactic Acid Cleanser

Scrub: Mechanical Scrub 2-3x per Week

Toner: Glycolic Acid Toner

Serum Combo A (Monday/Wednesday/Friday/Sunday): Kojic Acid Serum + Tranexamic Acid Serum – Weeks 1-6 | Arbutin Serum + Licorice Root Extract Serum – Weeks 7 & Beyond

Serum Combo B (Tuesday/Thursday/Saturday): Stem Cell Serum + Peptide Serum

Hydrator: Squalane or Hyaluronic Acid Cream or Serum


HOMECARE PLAN for Hyperpigmentation: Sun Damage or PIHP (Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation)

AM Routine

Cleanser: Glycerin + Peptide Cleanser

Toner: Salicylic Acid Toner

Serum: Peptide and Vitamin C Serums

Sunscreen: Mineral-Based (Physical) SPF 30 + with Titanium Dioxide or Zinc Oxide


PM Routine

Cleanser: Lactic or Glycolic Cleanser

Scrub: Mechanical Scrub 2-3x per Week

Toner: Glycolic Acid Toner

Serum Combo A (Monday/Wednesday/Friday/Sunday): Kojic Acid Serum + Arbutin Serum – Weeks 1-6 | Arbutin Serum + Retinol Serum – Weeks 7 & Beyond

Serum Combo B (Tuesday/Thursday/Saturday): Stem Cell Serum + Growth Factor Serum

Hydrator: Squalane or Hyaluronic Acid Cream or Serum


By working through the nuances of hyperpigmentation and regularly studying the root causes, Estheticians can be highly successful in treating skin discoloration and truly making it a huge part of their business – with amazing before and after images of their clients! Through the creation of customized protocols and routines, and with regular follow-up, Estheticians can both educate and treat the skin in a way that sets up the client for long-term pro-aging success!

Esthetician Entrepreneurship: Legal Requirements & Liabilities of Estheticians Seeking Room Renters

Esthetician entrepreneurs are looking for different ways to work smarter, not harder. Going into business ownership in and of itself into territories unknown are leaving Estheticians yearning for more! They desire more information, better coaching, and outlined layouts to ensure they are covering all bases. Esthetician entrepreneurship doesn’t have to be scary or daunting. Anyone can do it with sheer tenacity, financial acumen (which can be learned!), and willpower to continue on in the face of hardships.

Looking for other sources of income this year are an Esthetician owner’s best asset! Sources of income generation include membership opportunities for your clients with zero commitment requirements, selling services in bundles instead of service by service, selling products on your website with easy-to-use merchant services options (not just one), and potentially renting out space within your storefront to maximize income per square foot.

While many Esthetician entrepreneurs may opt for W2 employees to meet the mission and vision for their company, other Esthetician owners may want the hands-off management of individuals – which is inclusive of sub leasing or renting space within their facilities. There are truly pros and cons to both options; however, when choosing room rentals as an option for your business, there are serious rules and protocols to follow that will ensure your spa business is compliant for any and all legal liabilities.

What does Room Rental look like for the Esthetician Business Owner?

To start, business owners in the spa industry may or may not have rooms to rent. When looking at your current space, to offer a room as rental property, you must ensure it meets several requirements that many renters may look for. Rooms should be closed off from other spaces in the facility with a closed door. Rooms should have some sort of access to storage space, such as a closet. Rooms should have access to additional use of space such as dispensaries with counter space for disinfecting equipment/modalities and a sink with hot/cold running water. Added bonuses would be access to the use of an on-site laundry facility. While not all of these are certainty required, it is definitely something to think about when sub leasing or renting space out to individuals that you want to become long-term tenants.


Prior to renting out rooms, determine whether or not your landlord will allow subleasing as an option. If you own your building, you’re in the clear; however, if your company is leasing its facilities, you will most certainly need to inform the building owner/landlord as you may need additional access for parking for the renter and will be potentially giving out a key to your facilities. These are things to think about prior to getting into room rentals with your spa.


Room Rental Legal Compliance: The Tenant File

If you decide that room renting is the right step for you, compiling a very specific requirement list and Tenant File for your recording-keeping purposes is key. This replaces the “HR File”, as you are not employing an individual, but leasing out space.


LEGAL REMINDER: As someone bringing on room renters, you are only leasing space to the individual. Therefore, you are not able to treat the individual as an employee. Actions such as requiring dress code and hours to work are not legally compliant. Room renters can set their own hours, manage their schedules, wear whatever uniform is suitable to their own business mission, and so forth. Room renters are business owners inside of your company. You are not to share in any merchant services, online booking platforms, and the like. Everything financial and otherwise must be kept completely separate from your business. Understanding this and really thinking through it may cause you to opt out of wanting renters in the first place. Do your due diligence and think about your long-term goals and company vision. Is this what you want within your walls?


To begin your Tenant File, you will want to require the following documentation to ensure you are covering all of your bases. By making sure that the individual and their company is legitimately doing things such as filing for tax payments and covering their assets through proper insurance, for example, you will take the liability off of you if questions were to arise.


The PERFECT Tenant File includes:

  • A serious LEGAL CONTRACT that is held up in a court of law; regarding all requirements of renting space from your facility

  • Copy of their Federal Tax ID Number

  • Copy of their State Withholding Number

  • Copy of their County Business License

  • Copy of their Professional License

  • Copy of their Salon or Booth/Room Renters License from the State Board of Cosmetology

  • Copy of their Liability Insurance Policy

  • Copy of their Renter’s Insurance Policy

This list speaks for itself; however, many Esthetician business owners do not think about these items nor do they even have items such as simple contracts signed between their company and individual room renters. I suggest consulting with an attorney regarding legal contracts for renters and/or downloading my editable Salon & Spa Owner Success Bundle here:

Esthetician entrepreneurs can be successful in anything they put their mind to, inclusive of room rentals, with the proper business acumen and processes in place before beginning down any path involving other practitioners. Individuals deserve respect and continuity. By being a fantastic and trusted business owner with their “ducks in a row”, Estheticians can be at the forefront of business success for years to come!


Welcome to the ever-changing, beauty and science-focused esthetics industry! The true nuts and bolts of your work will entail a strong understanding of histology, the study of the microscopic structure of tissues. Your clients are more aware than ever before about the nuances of skincare and what’s available on the market. It is your job to dive into the deeper levels of skincare in order to help explain the “why” factor. This is the magic sauce and true pathway to long-term success as a working esthetics professional.

Within your amazing consultations and post-service education moments, you are able to utilize your expansive knowledge of the inner workings of the skin layers to explain and recommend professional skincare treatments and homecare recommendations. The future of amazing skincare is in YOUR HANDS – and you have the super powers available through expansive knowledge of science and ingredients to take your clients to a place of skincare enlightenment! Amazing additives to this special relationship with your clients include uplifting their confidence levels, assisting them with wellness management, and changing their lives in a big, inspirational way!


The skin is the largest organ of the body. It has three main layers, the epidermis, the dermis and the subcutaneous layer (adipose tissue; fat). The epidermis is an elastic layer on the outside that is continually being regenerated.

Healthy humans regenerate skin cells every 28 days. As we become older and free-radical damage comes into play, our cell turnover rate (cellular regeneration rate) slows down. This is the reason WHY consumers want to see an Esthetician and focus on treatments that produce cell turnover.


There are many important cells in the epidermis of the skin that play an important function for skin health – and are exceptionally important for Estheticians to understand in order to assist clients in receiving proper information about the WHY in skincare.


What are the 3 major cells that make up the epidermis?

  • Keratinocytes: Keratinocytes produce the protein keratin, which is the main component of the epidermis. Keratinocytes are baby or fetal skin cells that have the opportunity to create mitosis and thus, new skin cells!

  • Melanocytes: Melanocytes create skin pigment, known as melanin. Melanocytes are pigment cells located in the Stratum Germinativum, the fifth layer of the epidermis – also known as the Basal layer.

  • Langerhans Cells: Langerhans cells are the immune cells of the skin and part of the integumentary system (skin). Langerhans cells (LC) are a unique population of tissue-resident macrophages (a large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection) that form a network of cells across the epidermis of the skin, but which have the ability to migrate from the epidermis to draining lymph nodes.


What is a corneocyte? 

Corneocytes are brand new ADULT skin cells located on the Stratum Corneum, the top layer of the epidermis. Corneocytes are essentially keratinocytes that have evolved. As mitosis is happening at the Basal layer of the epidermis, two new cells are formed, picking up keratin and lipids along the way through the Stratum Granulosum, and making their way to the top of the skin – sloughing off old, dead skin cells to reveal fresh, new, shiny corneocytes! Our GOAL as an Esthetician is to produce and/or reveal new corneocytes at each visit – which produces an ethereal, gorgeous glow to the skin after each treatment!

When educating your clients, the best way to explain the epidermis is to refer to these cells and their functions. Keratinocytes and melanocytes, both located in the Stratum Germinativum (Basal layer), give some fantastic talking points regarding why nanotechnology and professional-grade treatments and products are entirely necessary. Because over-the-counter products inherently penetrate only to the second or third layer of the epidermis, the keratinocytes and melanocytes are often untouched.



The dermis is a connective tissue layer sandwiched between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. The dermis is a fibrous structure composed of collagen, elastic tissue, and other extracellular components that includes vasculature, nerve endings, hair follicles, and glands. The role of the dermis is to support and protect the skin and deeper layers, assist in thermoregulation, and aid in sensation. Fibroblasts are the primary cells within the dermis, but histiocytes, mast cells, and adipocytes also play important roles in maintaining the normal structure and function of the dermis.

There are many cell types found within the connective tissue of the dermis, including fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes, mast cells, Schwann cells, and stem cells.

The dermis is a connective tissue layer of mesenchymal origin located deep to the epidermis and superficial to the subcutaneous fat layer. The composition of the dermis is mainly fibrous, consisting of both collagen and elastic fibers. Between the fibrous components lies an amorphous extracellular “ground substance” containing glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins.

The dermis is divided into two layers: the papillary dermis and the reticular dermis. The papillary dermis is the superficial layer, lying deep to the epidermis. The papillary dermis is composed of loose connective tissue that is highly vascular. The reticular layer is the deep layer, forming a thick layer of dense connective tissue that constitutes the bulk of the dermis.

Collagen is the principal component of the dermis. Specifically, type I and type III collagen are found in abundance. Elastic fibers also play an important structural role within the dermis. Elastic fibers are composed of elastin and fibrillin microfibrils. In contrast to collagen, the biochemical configuration of elastin allows for gliding, stretching, and recoiling of fibers. The reticular dermis comprises thick elastic fibers. Two subtypes of elastic fibers are worth further discussion: elaunin and oxytalan fibers. Elaunin fibers are horizontally arranged elastic fibers found near the junction of the papillary and reticular dermis. Oxytalan fibers are perpendicular elastic fibers found in the papillary dermis.

The dermis houses blood vessels, nerve endings, hair follicles, and glands. There are many cell types found within the connective tissue of the dermis, including fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes, mast cells, Schwann cells, and stem cells. Fibroblasts are the principal cell of the dermis. Mast cells are typically found surrounding dermal capillaries.

The dermis contains many cell types. Fibroblasts, the principal cell of the dermis, handle the synthesis of collagen, elastic and reticular fibers, and extracellular matrix material. Histiocytes are tissue macrophages present within the connective tissue that assist the immune system. Mast cells are inflammatory cells located in the perivascular areas of the dermis. Mast cells secrete vasoactive and proinflammatory mediators important in inflammatory reactions, collagen remodeling, and wound healing. Dermal adipocytes are a distinct cell population from the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Dermal adipocytes not only provide insulation and energy storage but also assist in hair follicle regeneration and wound healing.


Fibroblasts: Create the Extracellular Matrix of the Dermis – collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid – a water-binding protein structure from the proteoglycan). As an Esthetician, this should be your FAVORITE cell to focus on producing!

Mast Cells: Produce histamine responses within your skin (such as hives); blood cells that are part of your immune system. They help to fight infections, but they are also involved in allergic reactions. Mast cells live longer than normal cells, and they grow in the bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and airways.


Estheticians should understand the actual functions of the skin (integumentary system; epithelial tissue) that play a huge role in professional esthetics. The skin has six main jobs to do on a day-to-day basis. These include:


    • The skin does a fantastic job of controlling body temperature and keeping the temperature of the body stable. It does this in two ways: through sweating, and changes in blood flow, depending on the temperature of the air around us. If we are in a hot climate, our body releases sweat from glands in the skin. The blood vessels that run through the skin also get wider allowing increased blood flow. This releases heat from the body. This process reverses in cold climates. The body will then sweat less and the blood vessels will become more narrow, reducing the amount of blood flow which helps the body retain heat. Incredibly magical!


    • The skin acts as a reservoir to store blood. Within the thin layers of the skin are lots of blood vessels which, at rest (i.e. sitting or lying down), hold somewhere between 8-10% of the total blood in the body.


    • Our bodies are covered in one big protective coating – our skin! The skin protects us from the outside world and any foreign bodies that could cause harm internally. Our skin is made up of very tightly packed cells that produce a protein known as keratin. This protects the tissues inside us from heat, scratches, chemicals – and any foreign invaders that are floating around. Special glands in the skin produce an oily substance that covers our skin and hairs to stop them from drying out. Our sweat is also acidic and provides protection against pathogenic bacteria/germs. Pigment in our skin protects us from the sun’s harmful UV rays. Finally, there are other special types of cells (Langerhans cells) that recognize foreign invaders (antigens) that have made their way through the skin layers and alert our immune system to send in the soldiers to kill the unwanted guests. The skin truly works hard to keep us safe from harm!


    • Within the layers of our skin, there are thousands of tiny structures known as receptors, which help us to detect sensation. Nerve endings do a similar job. These sensations include touch, vibration, pressure, tickling, heat, cold, and pain.


    • Absorption refers to the movement of substances from the outside world through the skin and into our bodies. We can absorb certain vitamins, drugs (example: hydrocortisone cream), gasses (oxygen and carbon dioxide), as well as many other substances through our skin. Many of these are essential substances that we need to live. Others can be harmful to our bodies.

    • Excretion refers to the removal of waste substances from the body. Our sweat is one way we can get rid of waste substances. We also lose water from the skin through the process of evaporation.


    • Vitamin D is produced when the sun’s UV rays hit our exposed skin. Vitamin D is used to help the body absorb calcium from the food that we eat. Both of these substances are important for good bone and muscle health. Vitamin D also plays a major role in our immune system function when we need to fight off an invasion of microbes. It is also needed by the body to reduce levels of inflammation.



Antigen: a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies. Antigens include toxins, chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or other substances that come from outside the body. Body tissues and cells, including cancer cells, also have antigens on them that can cause an immune response.

Antibody: a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.



The pathway to success with your clients is to map out a defined Client Care Plan that suits their treatment needs by outlining their conditions and goals with a unique plan utilizing your specific modalities and ingredient combinations to achieve amazing results in the treatment room. Client Care Plans additionally include a detailed outline of skincare products for home use, defined by morning and evening routines. The smart Esthetician provides ingredient-focused product recommendations only – and not necessarily brand-specific. This defines the immense knowledge you have as a professional and opens the doorway for education with the client regarding ingredients and their benefits. Additional items included would encompass advanced recommendations provided by other industry professionals such as laser treatments and cosmetic injectables.

  • Categories are simple and strategic

  • Contain the plan to six to eight treatments and then place clients in a maintenance stage (with services ranging from four to six-week intervals, instead of three-week intervals)

  • Include added value recommendations

  • Be ingredient-specific, never (sometimes) brand specific

Client Care Plans consist of the following: 








Client Care Plans & Their Benefits

  • Clients are Visual Learners!

    • Clients desire a visual to go with the education given within a skin care treatment session.

  • Clients need PLANS to see the BIG PICTURE!

    • Mapping out a plan gives consumers the understanding needed regarding why they need to stay on board with you from A to Z.

  • Clients need DESCRIPTIONS + Education!

    • Plans provide the written description of items that may have been missed or would be forgotten by a client during a verbal consultation.

  • Clients desire PROFESSIONALISM.

    • Care plans showcase professionalism and added value.



The consultation for clients should be focused on the experience combined with education that exceeds many other providers’ level of care! YOU are the expert! Consumers are not impressed by simply the treatments themselves, but rather the focus on client understanding and their level of involvement in the process.


    • YOU will have all the Care Plans lined out, per skin condition! Along with your amazing ingredient knowledge!


    • YOU are the EXPERT in your treatment room, through a scientific focus on esthetics excellence!


    • Massive SUCCESS flows to YOU through AMAZING communication and education for your clients!



In skin care, products that produce results will always contain several factors: a high concentration of active cosmeceutical ingredients that produce a direct change in the basal layer of the epidermis (stratum germinativum) and vehicles in a small enough form to drive the actives where they need to go to create new cell growth! So, always strive to use the best for your clients! Believe me, they will love you for it!


ACTIVE INGREDIENTS: Ingredients that produce the CHANGE in the skin.

VEHICLES/BINDERS/CARRIERS: Ingredients that hold the product together chemically; what carry active ingredients where they need to go in the skin.


  • Tier 1: Over-the-Counter Products

    • Contain small percentages/concentrations of active ingredients, if any. The vehicles used to drive the actives into the skin are larger in molecular size and not as advanced in nature; therefore, penetration to the basal layer of the epidermis is impossible.

  • Tier 2: Regulated/Professional-Grade Skin Care Lines

    • Sold to consumers by a Licensed Esthetician or professional entity.

    • Zone where clients need to “live” during the maintenance stage of their skin renewal journey.

    • Contains a high enough percentage of actives to reach the basal layer of the epidermis (where change happens!).

    • Vehicles to drive ingredients in the layers of new cell growth are small in molecular size, which means best penetration.

  • Tier 3: Prescription-Level Product Lines

    • Sold to licensed professionals in a medical spa, dermatology office, or plastic surgery practice.

    • Consumers must only use Tier 3 products (i.e. Tretinoin or Hydroquinone 4%) for a temporary period of time and then back down to Tier 2 products once the change cycle is complete.

    • Active ingredients are high concentrations, meaning serious inflammation can happen if used incorrectly.

    • Individuals must be monitored by a licensed professional during usage.

    • May only be used two to three days at a time, before backing off for a few days, then beginning the cycle of usage again.

    • Vehicles tend to help water down the active ingredients in order to cause less irritation during usage – hence the CREAM formulation for many prescription topicals (not all).



ACIDS = Break skin cells down
NOURISHERS = Build cells up

Clients need a combination of BOTH on different days of the week to achieve ultimate RESULTS!

Mitosis Introduction

Mitosis is the process by which a cell replicates its chromosomes and then segregates them, producing two identical nuclei in preparation for cell division. Mitosis is generally followed by equal division of the cell’s content into two daughter cells that have identical genomes.

Estheticians must become familiar with many different active ingredients that produce incredible results for long-term cellular change for their clients! By categorizing ingredients into Acids and Nourishers, Estheticians can ensure the consumer is receiving the ultimate skincare routine by ensuring recommendations from both categories.




    • Glycolic Acid: Derived from sugar cane; Molecular weight of 76 (lowest molecular weight of all AHA’s – most aggressive!) ; Produces new cells by creating mitosis of keratinocytes – to create NEW cells!

    • Lactic Acid: Derived from sour milk; Molecular weight of 90; Exfoliates yet HYDRATES the skin; Produces firmer skin with less wrinkles.

    • Malic Acid: Molecular weight of 134; Produces new cells by speeding up cell turnover through cellular mitosis.

    • Kojic Acid: Molecular weight of 142; chelation agent produced by several species of fungi; Produces brightening effects to the skin.

    • Tartaric Acid: Molecular weight of 150; Naturally derived from grapes; Has keratolytic properties (creates mitosis to stimulate new cells) and produces hydration.

    • Mandelic Acid: Molecular weight of 152; Derived from almonds; Accelerates cell turnover without being too aggressive; Great for sensitive skin types.

    • Phytic Acid: Molecular weight of 160; milder AHA used for exfoliation and skin brightening. Studies have shown that in combination phytic acid with a glycolic acid work together to improve skin tone.

    • Citric Acid: Molecular weight of 192; Increases cell turnover, specifically for sensitive skin types or starter chemical peels/peel prepping solutions.


    • Molecular weight of 138; Eats away at dirt and debris within the pore for acne skin conditions; Tightens pores; Pulls the “red” out of rosacea-prone skin conditions; Anti-microbial.


    • Speeds up cell turnover through cellular DESQUAMATION (skin shedding!); Works BEST when utilized with other AHA’s or BHA’s; Not to be used independently or for long periods of time. Retinol is a type of retinoid, which is made from vitamin A.


    • A skin lightening agent and tyrosinase inhibitor; Works by turning off “tyrosinase” – which is an enzyme turned on by HORMONE changes in the skin that produce splotchy hyperpigmentation through an increase in melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis; Carcinogenic in nature (toxic; cancer-causing if used in large doses over long periods of time)


    • Arbutin is a glycosylated hydroquinone extracted from the bearberry plant; inhibits tyrosinase and thus prevents the formation of melanin from a NATURAL, PLANT-BASED perspective; Highly purified biosynthetic active ingredient that reduces the look of hyperpigmentation and uneven skin tone.


    • Introduces oxygen into the pores, which KILLS bacteria; BPO is carcinogenic and causes oxidation (free radical damage) – therefore, it is best utilized for short periods of time for Grade 3 & 4 Acne ONLY.



Kojic acid is a by-product in the fermentation process of malting rice, for use in the manufacturing of sake, the Japanese rice wine.



When using kojic acid topically, consumers are likely to see results within two weeks. Consumers may see increased results – or faster results – if glycolic acid is added to the weekly treatment.



Salicylic acid is produced commercially via the Kolbe-Schmitt process. Here, phenol and sodium hydroxide are reacted to make sodium phenoxide. The phenoxide is contacted with CO2 to form sodium salicylate. The salicylate is acidified to give salicylic acid.



Salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid) is a white solid first isolated from the bark of willow trees.



Rosehip seed oil contains trans-retinoic acid, a naturally occurring form of vitamin A, which retinol is a synthetic compound.



There are 5 main types of retinoids used in the treatment of wrinkles, resurfacing + texture issues:

  • Retinyl Palmitate: Least potent; Perfect for sensitive or dry skin types.

  • Retinaldehyde: Stronger than retinol; Wonderful for sensitive or delicate skin but for those wanting more aggressive results.

  • Retinol: The standard ingredient found in retinoid products.

  • Tretinoin: A potent retinoid available by prescription only; For those seeking stronger pro-aging support.

  • Tazarotene: The most powerful retinoid, available by prescription only; If skin tolerates retinoid products well and the client is looking for enhanced results, this would be a great option.

  • Adapalene: Affordable and non-prescription; Effective for acne-prone skin conditions.


Hydroquinone is a substance that can be found in nature but is often created in a lab. In nature, it can be found in some plants and fungi, such as the Agaricus hondenis mushroom. It’s also produced in the body of an insect called the bombardier beetle, which utilizes it as a defense secretion. Hydroquinone, also known as benzene-1, 4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.


Use Benzoyl Peroxide serums for Week 1-3 for Grade 3 & 4 Acne treatment – THEN back off of it! Change over to a Salicylic Acid treatment serum and alternate with a Nourisher serum (Stem Cells, Hyaluronic Acid, etc.) for best results for Week 4 and beyond!



    • The only VITAMIN to synthesize collagen proteins; Collagen PRODUCTION! (Fun Fact! Copper is the only MINERAL to synthesize collagen production!)

    • Antioxidant & Sunscreen BOOSTER! Use during the AM routine primarily.

    • Does NOT combine well with glycolic acid and retinol – as well as other ACIDS! Because it’s an antioxidant, it NEUTRALIZES other chemical reactions! BEST when used ALONE in the skincare routine.

    • If used at night, use by itself and not in the presence of other acids.


    • Holds 1000x its own weight in water; Water binder + skin plumper! A type of Glycosaminoglycan – which is a type of PROTEIN in the Dermis called a Proteoglycan within the “Extracellular Matrix”.

    • Synthesized in a lab, it is called Sodium Hyaluronate – which may be used in topical products as well as dermal filler products such as “Juvederm” and “Volbella”.


    • May be plant or human-based; PRODUCES NEW CELLS BY BUILDING THEM UP; One of the best sources of anti-aging topically. PLANT-BASED stem cells are heavily used in skincare.

    • Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and divide to produce more stem cells.

    • Adult stem cells come from adipose tissue or bone marrow. Stem cells can also come from umbilical cord blood.


    • Peptides are fragments of proteins; made up of amino acids. When amino acids are combined in certain formations, they create specific peptides – and specific peptides create certain proteins!

    • Proteins = BUILDING BLOCKS of the skin (STRENGTH + TIGHTENING!)

    • Without peptides, the skin doesn’t remain intact and the results are loss of firmness, appearance of wrinkles, and texture changes!


    • The amazing attribute of this compound is its incredible ability to dissolve and carry large volumes of oxygen gas. This makes it a very interesting ingredient in various fields of science and medicine. Notably, it is used in artificial blood substitutes and in liquid breathing.

    • Oxygen delivered topically through the skin reaches capillaries that don’t get as much oxygen with regular breathing. This positively influences the blood circulation in these areas and the production of collagen, elastin and keratin. This ‘aeration’ process helps accelerate the skin’s healing by assisting the skin to breathe, and promoting the propagation of new cells.


    • Vitamin E (Tocopherol) – A hydrophobic molecule, meaning a molecule that is not water soluble, Tocopherol restores hydration by nourishing the lipid barrier and preventing the evaporation of existing moisture, known as transepidermal water loss, or TEWL. It also acts as an antioxidant and is highlighted by its stabilizing abilities in this formula.


    • Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide) – Also known as vitamin B3, niacinamide can improve the appearance of enlarged pores, brighten dull skin, as well as defend against environmental toxins. Niacinamide also has a hydrophilic molecular structure, meaning it attracts water from its environment.


    • Vitamin B5 (Panthenol) – This form of Provitamin B5 is a hydrophilic, or water absorbing, humectant and conditioner that works to pull in and bind moisture to the skin.


    • Growth factors are polypeptides or proteins that play a key role in the regulation of a number of physiological processes. Topical application of growth factors also reduces signs of photoaging, promotes fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation, and induces extracellular matrix formation.

    • Growth factors are natural substances made by skin cells to maintain healthy skin. They are responsible for supporting the repair of damaged skin, making components that provide firmness and elasticity to the skin while helping to maintain skin’s protective functions.



There are three categories of antioxidants that are additionally a part of the NOURISHER ingredient list, consisting of ENZYMATIC and NONENZYMATIC antioxidants, as well as PLANT EXTRACTS. Some antioxidants were already listed above individually with their own characteristics and benefits to the skin. Looking at antioxidants as a whole is helpful in determining the “skin food” that is most beneficial to your clients and ensuring antioxidants are part of their daily routine.


What are antioxidants in skincare?

Antioxidants are ingredients that provide a reduction in oxidation effects within the skin. Oxidation is by definition the process of “the addition of oxygen and the reduction of hydrogen” in chemistry. By introducing the type of oxygen that produces oxidative stress in the skin, the skin is then introduced to free radical damage. Free radical damage/oxidation (one in the same) causes aging in the skin and the degradation of collagen. Oxidation additionally steals an electron from paired atoms (with two electrons; an even amount of electrons) making them unstable. Antioxidants can produce the complete opposite reaction by providing an electron to unstable atoms and thus, reversing the signs of aging by providing a solution to oxidative stress. Antioxidants, however, must outweigh the number of free radicals and should be used daily in order to reverse aging.

Enzymatic Antioxidants

Examples of enzymatic antioxidants include:

  • Superoxide Dismutase: Helps break down potentially harmful oxygen molecules in cells. This might prevent damage to tissues.

  • Glutathione Peroxidase: Has the capacity to scavenge free radicals. This in turn helps to prevent lipid peroxidation and maintain intracellular homeostasis as well as redox balance.

  • Glutathione Reductase: Not only decreases the melanin (pigmentation) in your skin, but has also been found to decrease wrinkles and increase skin elasticity.

  • Glutathione Transferase:  Provides protection against oxidant toxicity and regulation of stress-mediated apoptosis (the death of cells which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism’s growth or development).


Nonenzymatic Antioxidants 

Examples of nonenzymatic antioxidants include:

  • Vitamin E (tocopherol): A hydrophobic molecule, meaning a molecule that is not water soluble, Tocopherol restores hydration by nourishing the lipid barrier and preventing the evaporation of existing moisture, known as transepidermal water loss, or TEWL. It also acts as an antioxidant and is highlighted by its stabilizing abilities in this formula.

  • Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid): The only vitamin to synthesize collagen production, acts as a sunscreen boosters, brightens skin, and provides antioxidant protection.

  • Vitamin A: Helps to speed up healing, prevent breakouts and support the skin’s immune system; promotes natural moisturization, which means it helps to hydrate the skin effectively, giving it a radiant glow.

  • DHLA (alpha-lipoic acid): Helps fight signs of skin aging; decreases the synthesis of melanin, reducing hyperpigmentation by evening out skin tone.

  • Coenzyme Q 10 (ubiquinol): Full of antioxidant properties that protect the skin from environmental stressors, energizes the skin, and helps skin retain moisture.

  • Idebenone: Reduces skin roughness and dryness; increases skin hydration; reduces fine lines/wrinkles; and improves overall look of photodamaged skin.

  • Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT): A stabilizer that can be found in cosmetic products. It acts as an antioxidant that helps maintain the properties and performance of a product as it is exposed to air.


Plant Extract Antioxidants

Examples of plant extract antioxidants include:

  • Green Tea: Helps reduce skin irritation, skin redness, and swelling.

  • Beta-Carotene: Helps maintain skin health and appearance, and may protect the skin against UV radiation from the sun.

  • Polyphenols: Protects the skin against ultraviolet radiation and enhances the skin’s cell growth.

  • Flavonoids: Contains multi-active components used in common cosmetics primarily for antioxidant and soothing actions; provides protection from telangiectasias and petechiae caused by ruptured blood vessels.

  • Pomegranate: Is rich in essential minerals and helps in reducing aging from the sun and pigmentation.

  • Acai Berry: Is rich in omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids – which help skin appear youthful and plump.



Vitamin C is an effective antioxidant that brightens the skin tone and reduces signs of aging. Alpha arbutin is a highly purified biosynthetic active ingredient that reduces the look of hyperpigmentation and uneven skin tone. They work BEST when used together! Vitamin C in the morning – and Arbutin in the evening! HINT: Alternate Arbutin and Kojic Acid nightly for even better results!


  • Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5

    • Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 is a deep penetrating, bioactive ingredient. This small peptide is a short chain amino acid with a unique sequence, designed to mimic the body’s own mechanism to produce collagen via the multifunctional protein called TGF-β. TGF-β is known as the key element in the synthesis of collagen and binds to a particular sequence in the body’s collagen production process.

  • Pentapeptide-18

    • To ensure maximum muscle relaxation, we use Pentapeptide-18. This peptide mimics the natural mechanism of enkephalins. Enkephalins are neurotransmitters which work to suppress pain, and administer a calming response. Pentapeptide-18 couples to the enkephalin receptors on the outside of nerve cells initiating a decrease of the neuron’s excitability. The nerve cell’s activity is ‘turned down’ and the release of acetylcholine suppressed.

  • Hexapeptide-8 & Acetyl Glutamyl Heptapeptide-1

    • Hexapeptide-8 and Acetyl Glutamyl Heptapeptide-1 are two peptides that mimic the N–terminal of SNAP-25 protein. They compete for a position in the SNARE complex, which destabilizes the pathway, so that it cannot support neurotransmitters efficiently. The vesicles struggle to even reach the neurological receptors. Any vesicles which do manage to cross the protein pathway and reach the receptors are hindered by another peptide called Dipeptide Diaminobutyroyl Benzylamide Diacetate. This peptide is an antagonist of the muscular receptor and acts by blocking the uptake of acetylcholine released from vesicles to the receptor sites.


Estheticians must understand the correlation between histology and cosmetic chemistry. Cosmetic chemistry is the understanding of active ingredients and their effects on the skin. Estheticians must understand the needs of the clients and formulate a Care Plan that is conducive to their skin conditions and concerns – in order to choose the proper ingredients that benefit these conditions. Mapping out a plan that alternates active ingredients creates an avenue for true success in skincare!