Grey white monochrome cosmetic transparent cream gel texture smudge graphic background

Welcome to the ever-changing, beauty and science-focused esthetics industry! The true nuts and bolts of your work will entail a strong understanding of histology, the study of the microscopic structure of tissues. Your clients are more aware than ever before about the nuances of skincare and what’s available on the market. It is your job to dive into the deeper levels of skincare in order to help explain the “why” factor. This is the magic sauce and true pathway to long-term success as a working esthetics professional.

Within your amazing consultations and post-service education moments, you are able to utilize your expansive knowledge of the inner workings of the skin layers to explain and recommend professional skincare treatments and homecare recommendations. The future of amazing skincare is in YOUR HANDS – and you have the super powers available through expansive knowledge of science and ingredients to take your clients to a place of skincare enlightenment! Amazing additives to this special relationship with your clients include uplifting their confidence levels, assisting them with wellness management, and changing their lives in a big, inspirational way!


The skin is the largest organ of the body. It has three main layers, the epidermis, the dermis and the subcutaneous layer (adipose tissue; fat). The epidermis is an elastic layer on the outside that is continually being regenerated.

Healthy humans regenerate skin cells every 28 days. As we become older and free-radical damage comes into play, our cell turnover rate (cellular regeneration rate) slows down. This is the reason WHY consumers want to see an Esthetician and focus on treatments that produce cell turnover.


There are many important cells in the epidermis of the skin that play an important function for skin health – and are exceptionally important for Estheticians to understand in order to assist clients in receiving proper information about the WHY in skincare.

What are the 3 major cells that make up the epidermis?

  • Keratinocytes: Keratinocytes produce the protein keratin, which is the main component of the epidermis. Keratinocytes are baby or fetal skin cells that have the opportunity to create mitosis and thus, new skin cells!
  • Melanocytes: Melanocytes create skin pigment, known as melanin. Melanocytes are pigment cells located in the Stratum Germinativum, the fifth layer of the epidermis – also known as the Basal layer.
  • Langerhans Cells: Langerhans cells are the immune cells of the skin and part of the integumentary system (skin). Langerhans cells (LC) are a unique population of tissue-resident macrophages (a large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection) that form a network of cells across the epidermis of the skin, but which have the ability to migrate from the epidermis to draining lymph nodes.

What is a corneocyte? 

Corneocytes are brand new ADULT skin cells located on the Stratum Corneum, the top layer of the epidermis. Corneocytes are essentially keratinocytes that have evolved. As mitosis is happening at the Basal layer of the epidermis, two new cells are formed, picking up keratin and lipids along the way through the Stratum Granulosum, and making their way to the top of the skin – sloughing off old, dead skin cells to reveal fresh, new, shiny corneocytes! Our GOAL as an Esthetician is to produce and/or reveal new corneocytes at each visit – which produces an ethereal, gorgeous glow to the skin after each treatment!

When educating your clients, the best way to explain the epidermis is to refer to these cells and their functions. Keratinocytes and melanocytes, both located in the Stratum Germinativum (Basal layer), give some fantastic talking points regarding why nanotechnology and professional-grade treatments and products are entirely necessary. Because over-the-counter products inherently penetrate only to the second or third layer of the epidermis, the keratinocytes and melanocytes are often untouched.


The dermis is a connective tissue layer sandwiched between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. The dermis is a fibrous structure composed of collagen, elastic tissue, and other extracellular components that includes vasculature, nerve endings, hair follicles, and glands. The role of the dermis is to support and protect the skin and deeper layers, assist in thermoregulation, and aid in sensation. Fibroblasts are the primary cells within the dermis, but histiocytes, mast cells, and adipocytes also play important roles in maintaining the normal structure and function of the dermis.

There are many cell types found within the connective tissue of the dermis, including fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes, mast cells, Schwann cells, and stem cells.

The dermis is a connective tissue layer of mesenchymal origin located deep to the epidermis and superficial to the subcutaneous fat layer. The composition of the dermis is mainly fibrous, consisting of both collagen and elastic fibers. Between the fibrous components lies an amorphous extracellular “ground substance” containing glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins.

The dermis is divided into two layers: the papillary dermis and the reticular dermis. The papillary dermis is the superficial layer, lying deep to the epidermis. The papillary dermis is composed of loose connective tissue that is highly vascular. The reticular layer is the deep layer, forming a thick layer of dense connective tissue that constitutes the bulk of the dermis.

Collagen is the principal component of the dermis. Specifically, type I and type III collagen are found in abundance. Elastic fibers also play an important structural role within the dermis. Elastic fibers are composed of elastin and fibrillin microfibrils. In contrast to collagen, the biochemical configuration of elastin allows for gliding, stretching, and recoiling of fibers. The reticular dermis comprises thick elastic fibers. Two subtypes of elastic fibers are worth further discussion: elaunin and oxytalan fibers. Elaunin fibers are horizontally arranged elastic fibers found near the junction of the papillary and reticular dermis. Oxytalan fibers are perpendicular elastic fibers found in the papillary dermis.

The dermis houses blood vessels, nerve endings, hair follicles, and glands. There are many cell types found within the connective tissue of the dermis, including fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes, mast cells, Schwann cells, and stem cells. Fibroblasts are the principal cell of the dermis. Mast cells are typically found surrounding dermal capillaries.

The dermis contains many cell types. Fibroblasts, the principal cell of the dermis, handle the synthesis of collagen, elastic and reticular fibers, and extracellular matrix material. Histiocytes are tissue macrophages present within the connective tissue that assist the immune system. Mast cells are inflammatory cells located in the perivascular areas of the dermis. Mast cells secrete vasoactive and proinflammatory mediators important in inflammatory reactions, collagen remodeling, and wound healing. Dermal adipocytes are a distinct cell population from the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Dermal adipocytes not only provide insulation and energy storage but also assist in hair follicle regeneration and wound healing.


Fibroblasts: Create the Extracellular Matrix of the Dermis – collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid – a water-binding protein structure from the proteoglycan). As an Esthetician, this should be your FAVORITE cell to focus on producing!

Mast Cells: Produce histamine responses within your skin (such as hives); blood cells that are part of your immune system. They help to fight infections, but they are also involved in allergic reactions. Mast cells live longer than normal cells, and they grow in the bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and airways.


Estheticians should understand the actual functions of the skin (integumentary system; epithelial tissue) that play a huge role in professional esthetics. The skin has six main jobs to do on a day-to-day basis. These include:

    • The skin does a fantastic job of controlling body temperature and keeping the temperature of the body stable. It does this in two ways: through sweating, and changes in blood flow, depending on the temperature of the air around us. If we are in a hot climate, our body releases sweat from glands in the skin. The blood vessels that run through the skin also get wider allowing increased blood flow. This releases heat from the body. This process reverses in cold climates. The body will then sweat less and the blood vessels will become more narrow, reducing the amount of blood flow which helps the body retain heat. Incredibly magical!
    • The skin acts as a reservoir to store blood. Within the thin layers of the skin are lots of blood vessels which, at rest (i.e. sitting or lying down), hold somewhere between 8-10% of the total blood in the body.
    • Our bodies are covered in one big protective coating – our skin! The skin protects us from the outside world and any foreign bodies that could cause harm internally. Our skin is made up of very tightly packed cells that produce a protein known as keratin. This protects the tissues inside us from heat, scratches, chemicals – and any foreign invaders that are floating around. Special glands in the skin produce an oily substance that covers our skin and hairs to stop them from drying out. Our sweat is also acidic and provides protection against pathogenic bacteria/germs. Pigment in our skin protects us from the sun’s harmful UV rays. Finally, there are other special types of cells (Langerhans cells) that recognize foreign invaders (antigens) that have made their way through the skin layers and alert our immune system to send in the soldiers to kill the unwanted guests. The skin truly works hard to keep us safe from harm!
    • Within the layers of our skin, there are thousands of tiny structures known as receptors, which help us to detect sensation. Nerve endings do a similar job. These sensations include touch, vibration, pressure, tickling, heat, cold, and pain.
    • Absorption refers to the movement of substances from the outside world through the skin and into our bodies. We can absorb certain vitamins, drugs (example: hydrocortisone cream), gasses (oxygen and carbon dioxide), as well as many other substances through our skin. Many of these are essential substances that we need to live. Others can be harmful to our bodies.
    • Excretion refers to the removal of waste substances from the body. Our sweat is one way we can get rid of waste substances. We also lose water from the skin through the process of evaporation.
    • Vitamin D is produced when the sun’s UV rays hit our exposed skin. Vitamin D is used to help the body absorb calcium from the food that we eat. Both of these substances are important for good bone and muscle health. Vitamin D also plays a major role in our immune system function when we need to fight off an invasion of microbes. It is also needed by the body to reduce levels of inflammation.


Antigen: a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies. Antigens include toxins, chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or other substances that come from outside the body. Body tissues and cells, including cancer cells, also have antigens on them that can cause an immune response.

a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.


The pathway to success with your clients is to map out a defined Client Care Plan that suits their treatment needs by outlining their conditions and goals with a unique plan utilizing your specific modalities and ingredient combinations to achieve amazing results in the treatment room. Client Care Plans additionally include a detailed outline of skincare products for home use, defined by morning and evening routines. The smart Esthetician provides ingredient-focused product recommendations only – and not necessarily brand-specific. This defines the immense knowledge you have as a professional and opens the doorway for education with the client regarding ingredients and their benefits. Additional items included would encompass advanced recommendations provided by other industry professionals such as laser treatments and cosmetic injectables.

  • Categories are simple and strategic
  • Contain the plan to six to eight treatments and then place clients in a maintenance stage (with services ranging from four to six-week intervals, instead of three-week intervals)
  • Include added value recommendations
  • Be ingredient-specific, never (sometimes) brand specific

Client Care Plans consist of the following:


Client Care Plans & Their Benefits

  • Clients are Visual Learners!
    • Clients desire a visual to go with the education given within a skin care treatment session.
  • Clients need PLANS to see the BIG PICTURE!
    • Mapping out a plan gives consumers the understanding needed regarding why they need to stay on board with you from A to Z.
  • Clients need DESCRIPTIONS + Education!
    • Plans provide the written description of items that may have been missed or would be forgotten by a client during a verbal consultation.
  • Clients desire PROFESSIONALISM.
    • Care plans showcase professionalism and added value.


The consultation for clients should be focused on the experience combined with education that exceeds many other providers’ level of care! YOU are the expert! Consumers are not impressed by simply the treatments themselves, but rather the focus on client understanding and their level of involvement in the process.

    • YOU will have all the Care Plans lined out, per skin condition! Along with your amazing ingredient knowledge!
    • YOU are the EXPERT in your treatment room, through a scientific focus on esthetics excellence!
    • Massive SUCCESS flows to YOU through AMAZING communication and education for your clients!


In skin care, products that produce results will always contain several factors: a high concentration of active cosmeceutical ingredients that produce a direct change in the basal layer of the epidermis (stratum germinativum) and vehicles in a small enough form to drive the actives where they need to go to create new cell growth! So, always strive to use the best for your clients! Believe me, they will love you for it!


ACTIVE INGREDIENTS: Ingredients that produce the CHANGE in the skin.

VEHICLES/BINDERS/CARRIERS: Ingredients that hold the product together chemically; what carry active ingredients where they need to go in the skin.

  • Tier 1: Over-the-Counter Products
    • Contain small percentages/concentrations of active ingredients, if any. The vehicles used to drive the actives into the skin are larger in molecular size and not as advanced in nature; therefore, penetration to the basal layer of the epidermis is impossible.
  • Tier 2: Regulated/Professional-Grade Skin Care Lines
    • Sold to consumers by a Licensed Esthetician or professional entity.
    • Zone where clients need to “live” during the maintenance stage of their skin renewal journey.
    • Contains a high enough percentage of actives to reach the basal layer of the epidermis (where change happens!).
    • Vehicles to drive ingredients in the layers of new cell growth are small in molecular size, which means best penetration.
  • Tier 3: Prescription-Level Product Lines
    • Sold to licensed professionals in a medical spa, dermatology office, or plastic surgery practice.
    • Consumers must only use Tier 3 products (i.e. Tretinoin or Hydroquinone 4%) for a temporary period of time and then back down to Tier 2 products once the change cycle is complete.
    • Active ingredients are high concentrations, meaning serious inflammation can happen if used incorrectly.
    • Individuals must be monitored by a licensed professional during usage.
    • May only be used two to three days at a time, before backing off for a few days, then beginning the cycle of usage again.
    • Vehicles tend to help water down the active ingredients in order to cause less irritation during usage – hence the CREAM formulation for many prescription topicals (not all).


ACIDS = Break skin cells down
NOURISHERS = Build cells up

Clients need a combination of BOTH on different days of the week to achieve ultimate RESULTS!

Mitosis Introduction

Mitosis is the process by which a cell replicates its chromosomes and then segregates them, producing two identical nuclei in preparation for cell division. Mitosis is generally followed by equal division of the cell’s content into two daughter cells that have identical genomes.

Estheticians must become familiar with many different active ingredients that produce incredible results for long-term cellular change for their clients! By categorizing ingredients into Acids and Nourishers, Estheticians can ensure the consumer is receiving the ultimate skincare routine by ensuring recommendations from both categories.


    • Glycolic Acid: Derived from sugar cane; Molecular weight of 76 (lowest molecular weight of all AHA’s – most aggressive!) ; Produces new cells by creating mitosis of keratinocytes – to create NEW cells!
    • Lactic Acid: Derived from sour milk; Molecular weight of 90; Exfoliates yet HYDRATES the skin; Produces firmer skin with less wrinkles.
    • Malic Acid: Molecular weight of 134; Produces new cells by speeding up cell turnover through cellular mitosis.
    • Kojic Acid: Molecular weight of 142; chelation agent produced by several species of fungi; Produces brightening effects to the skin.
    • Tartaric Acid: Molecular weight of 150; Naturally derived from grapes; Has keratolytic properties (creates mitosis to stimulate new cells) and produces hydration.
    • Mandelic Acid: Molecular weight of 152; Derived from almonds; Accelerates cell turnover without being too aggressive; Great for sensitive skin types.
    • Phytic Acid: Molecular weight of 160; milder AHA used for exfoliation and skin brightening. Studies have shown that in combination phytic acid with a glycolic acid work together to improve skin tone.
    • Citric Acid: Molecular weight of 192; Increases cell turnover, specifically for sensitive skin types or starter chemical peels/peel prepping solutions.
    • Molecular weight of 138; Eats away at dirt and debris within the pore for acne skin conditions; Tightens pores; Pulls the “red” out of rosacea-prone skin conditions; Anti-microbial.
    • Speeds up cell turnover through cellular DESQUAMATION (skin shedding!); Works BEST when utilized with other AHA’s or BHA’s; Not to be used independently or for long periods of time. Retinol is a type of retinoid, which is made from vitamin A.
    • A skin lightening agent and tyrosinase inhibitor; Works by turning off “tyrosinase” – which is an enzyme turned on by HORMONE changes in the skin that produce splotchy hyperpigmentation through an increase in melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis; Carcinogenic in nature (toxic; cancer-causing if used in large doses over long periods of time)
    • Arbutin is a glycosylated hydroquinone extracted from the bearberry plant; inhibits tyrosinase and thus prevents the formation of melanin from a NATURAL, PLANT-BASED perspective; Highly purified biosynthetic active ingredient that reduces the look of hyperpigmentation and uneven skin tone.
    • Introduces oxygen into the pores, which KILLS bacteria; BPO is carcinogenic and causes oxidation (free radical damage) – therefore, it is best utilized for short periods of time for Grade 3 & 4 Acne ONLY.


Kojic acid is a by-product in the fermentation process of malting rice, for use in the manufacturing of sake, the Japanese rice wine.


When using kojic acid topically, consumers are likely to see results within two weeks. Consumers may see increased results – or faster results – if glycolic acid is added to the weekly treatment.


Salicylic acid is produced commercially via the Kolbe-Schmitt process. Here, phenol and sodium hydroxide are reacted to make sodium phenoxide. The phenoxide is contacted with CO2 to form sodium salicylate. The salicylate is acidified to give salicylic acid.


Salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid) is a white solid first isolated from the bark of willow trees.


Rosehip seed oil contains trans-retinoic acid, a naturally occurring form of vitamin A, which retinol is a synthetic compound.


There are 5 main types of retinoids used in the treatment of wrinkles, resurfacing + texture issues:

  • Retinyl Palmitate: Least potent; Perfect for sensitive or dry skin types.
  • Retinaldehyde: Stronger than retinol; Wonderful for sensitive or delicate skin but for those wanting more aggressive results.
  • Retinol: The standard ingredient found in retinoid products.
  • Tretinoin: A potent retinoid available by prescription only; For those seeking stronger pro-aging support.
  • Tazarotene: The most powerful retinoid, available by prescription only; If skin tolerates retinoid products well and the client is looking for enhanced results, this would be a great option.
  • Adapalene: Affordable and non-prescription; Effective for acne-prone skin conditions.


Hydroquinone is a substance that can be found in nature but is often created in a lab. In nature, it can be found in some plants and fungi, such as the Agaricus hondenis mushroom. It’s also produced in the body of an insect called the bombardier beetle, which utilizes it as a defense secretion. Hydroquinone, also known as benzene-1, 4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.


Use Benzoyl Peroxide serums for Week 1-3 for Grade 3 & 4 Acne treatment – THEN back off of it! Change over to a Salicylic Acid treatment serum and alternate with a Nourisher serum (Stem Cells, Hyaluronic Acid, etc.) for best results for Week 4 and beyond!


    • The only VITAMIN to synthesize collagen proteins; Collagen PRODUCTION! (Fun Fact! Copper is the only MINERAL to synthesize collagen production!)
    • Antioxidant & Sunscreen BOOSTER! Use during the AM routine primarily.
    • Does NOT combine well with glycolic acid and retinol – as well as other ACIDS! Because it’s an antioxidant, it NEUTRALIZES other chemical reactions! BEST when used ALONE in the skincare routine.
    • If used at night, use by itself and not in the presence of other acids.
    • Holds 1000x its own weight in water; Water binder + skin plumper! A type of Glycosaminoglycan – which is a type of PROTEIN in the Dermis called a Proteoglycan within the “Extracellular Matrix”.
    • Synthesized in a lab, it is called Sodium Hyaluronate – which may be used in topical products as well as dermal filler products such as “Juvederm” and “Volbella”.
    • May be plant or human-based; PRODUCES NEW CELLS BY BUILDING THEM UP; One of the best sources of anti-aging topically. PLANT-BASED stem cells are heavily used in skincare.
    • Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and divide to produce more stem cells.
    • Adult stem cells come from adipose tissue or bone marrow. Stem cells can also come from umbilical cord blood.
    • Peptides are fragments of proteins; made up of amino acids. When amino acids are combined in certain formations, they create specific peptides – and specific peptides create certain proteins!
    • Proteins = BUILDING BLOCKS of the skin (STRENGTH + TIGHTENING!)
    • Without peptides, the skin doesn’t remain intact and the results are loss of firmness, appearance of wrinkles, and texture changes!
    • The amazing attribute of this compound is its incredible ability to dissolve and carry large volumes of oxygen gas. This makes it a very interesting ingredient in various fields of science and medicine. Notably, it is used in artificial blood substitutes and in liquid breathing.
    • Oxygen delivered topically through the skin reaches capillaries that don’t get as much oxygen with regular breathing. This positively influences the blood circulation in these areas and the production of collagen, elastin and keratin. This ‘aeration’ process helps accelerate the skin’s healing by assisting the skin to breathe, and promoting the propagation of new cells.
    • Vitamin E (Tocopherol) – A hydrophobic molecule, meaning a molecule that is not water soluble, Tocopherol restores hydration by nourishing the lipid barrier and preventing the evaporation of existing moisture, known as transepidermal water loss, or TEWL. It also acts as an antioxidant and is highlighted by its stabilizing abilities in this formula.
    • Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide) – Also known as vitamin B3, niacinamide can improve the appearance of enlarged pores, brighten dull skin, as well as defend against environmental toxins. Niacinamide also has a hydrophilic molecular structure, meaning it attracts water from its environment.
    • Vitamin B5 (Panthenol) – This form of Provitamin B5 is a hydrophilic, or water absorbing, humectant and conditioner that works to pull in and bind moisture to the skin.
    • Growth factors are polypeptides or proteins that play a key role in the regulation of a number of physiological processes. Topical application of growth factors also reduces signs of photoaging, promotes fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation, and induces extracellular matrix formation.
    • Growth factors are natural substances made by skin cells to maintain healthy skin. They are responsible for supporting the repair of damaged skin, making components that provide firmness and elasticity to the skin while helping to maintain skin’s protective functions.


There are three categories of antioxidants that are additionally a part of the NOURISHER ingredient list, consisting of ENZYMATIC and NONENZYMATIC antioxidants, as well as PLANT EXTRACTS. Some antioxidants were already listed above individually with their own characteristics and benefits to the skin. Looking at antioxidants as a whole is helpful in determining the “skin food” that is most beneficial to your clients and ensuring antioxidants are part of their daily routine.

What are antioxidants in skincare?

Antioxidants are ingredients that provide a reduction in oxidation effects within the skin. Oxidation is by definition the process of “the addition of oxygen and the reduction of hydrogen” in chemistry. By introducing the type of oxygen that produces oxidative stress in the skin, the skin is then introduced to free radical damage. Free radical damage/oxidation (one in the same) causes aging in the skin and the degradation of collagen. Oxidation additionally steals an electron from paired atoms (with two electrons; an even amount of electrons) making them unstable. Antioxidants can produce the complete opposite reaction by providing an electron to unstable atoms and thus, reversing the signs of aging by providing a solution to oxidative stress. Antioxidants, however, must outweigh the number of free radicals and should be used daily in order to reverse aging.

Enzymatic Antioxidants

Examples of enzymatic antioxidants include:

  • Superoxide Dismutase: Helps break down potentially harmful oxygen molecules in cells. This might prevent damage to tissues.
  • Glutathione Peroxidase: Has the capacity to scavenge free radicals. This in turn helps to prevent lipid peroxidation and maintain intracellular homeostasis as well as redox balance.
  • Glutathione Reductase: Not only decreases the melanin (pigmentation) in your skin, but has also been found to decrease wrinkles and increase skin elasticity.
  • Glutathione Transferase: Provides protection against oxidant toxicity and regulation of stress-mediated apoptosis (the death of cells which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism’s growth or development).

Nonenzymatic Antioxidants

Examples of nonenzymatic antioxidants include:

  • Vitamin E (tocopherol): A hydrophobic molecule, meaning a molecule that is not water soluble, Tocopherol restores hydration by nourishing the lipid barrier and preventing the evaporation of existing moisture, known as transepidermal water loss, or TEWL. It also acts as an antioxidant and is highlighted by its stabilizing abilities in this formula.
  • Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid): The only vitamin to synthesize collagen production, acts as a sunscreen boosters, brightens skin, and provides antioxidant protection.
  • Vitamin A: Helps to speed up healing, prevent breakouts and support the skin’s immune system; promotes natural moisturization, which means it helps to hydrate the skin effectively, giving it a radiant glow.
  • DHLA (alpha-lipoic acid): Helps fight signs of skin aging; decreases the synthesis of melanin, reducing hyperpigmentation by evening out skin tone.
  • Coenzyme Q 10 (ubiquinol): Full of antioxidant properties that protect the skin from environmental stressors, energizes the skin, and helps skin retain moisture.
  • Idebenone: Reduces skin roughness and dryness; increases skin hydration; reduces fine lines/wrinkles; and improves overall look of photodamaged skin.
  • Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT): A stabilizer that can be found in cosmetic products. It acts as an antioxidant that helps maintain the properties and performance of a product as it is exposed to air.

Plant Extract Antioxidants

Examples of plant extract antioxidants include:

  • Green Tea: Helps reduce skin irritation, skin redness, and swelling.
  • Beta-Carotene: Helps maintain skin health and appearance, and may protect the skin against UV radiation from the sun.
  • Polyphenols: Protects the skin against ultraviolet radiation and enhances the skin’s cell growth.
  • Flavonoids: Contains multi-active components used in common cosmetics primarily for antioxidant and soothing actions; provides protection from telangiectasias and petechiae caused by ruptured blood vessels.
  • Pomegranate: Is rich in essential minerals and helps in reducing aging from the sun and pigmentation.
  • Acai Berry: Is rich in omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids – which help skin appear youthful and plump.


Vitamin C is an effective antioxidant that brightens the skin tone and reduces signs of aging. Alpha arbutin is a highly purified biosynthetic active ingredient that reduces the look of hyperpigmentation and uneven skin tone. They work BEST when used together! Vitamin C in the morning – and Arbutin in the evening! HINT: Alternate Arbutin and Kojic Acid nightly for even better results!


  • Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5
    • Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 is a deep penetrating, bioactive ingredient. This small peptide is a short chain amino acid with a unique sequence, designed to mimic the body’s own mechanism to produce collagen via the multifunctional protein called TGF-β. TGF-β is known as the key element in the synthesis of collagen and binds to a particular sequence in the body’s collagen production process.
  • Pentapeptide-18
    • To ensure maximum muscle relaxation, we use Pentapeptide-18. This peptide mimics the natural mechanism of enkephalins. Enkephalins are neurotransmitters which work to suppress pain, and administer a calming response. Pentapeptide-18 couples to the enkephalin receptors on the outside of nerve cells initiating a decrease of the neuron’s excitability. The nerve cell’s activity is ‘turned down’ and the release of acetylcholine suppressed.
  • Hexapeptide-8 & Acetyl Glutamyl Heptapeptide-1
    • Hexapeptide-8 and Acetyl Glutamyl Heptapeptide-1 are two peptides that mimic the N–terminal of SNAP-25 protein. They compete for a position in the SNARE complex, which destabilizes the pathway, so that it cannot support neurotransmitters efficiently. The vesicles struggle to even reach the neurological receptors. Any vesicles which do manage to cross the protein pathway and reach the receptors are hindered by another peptide called Dipeptide Diaminobutyroyl Benzylamide Diacetate. This peptide is an antagonist of the muscular receptor and acts by blocking the uptake of acetylcholine released from vesicles to the receptor sites.

Estheticians must understand the correlation between histology and cosmetic chemistry. Cosmetic chemistry is the understanding of active ingredients and their effects on the skin. Estheticians must understand the needs of the clients and formulate a Care Plan that is conducive to their skin conditions and concerns – in order to choose the proper ingredients that benefit these conditions. Mapping out a plan that alternates active ingredients creates an avenue for true success in skincare!